Lodhran District was agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture that invaded from Central Asia and settled in Punjab region. The Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Madras, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas and Kurus invaded, settled and ruled ancient Punjab region. After overrunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000. The Lodhran was ruled by Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Shahi kingdoms.
In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region.
After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Lodhran District. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh rule. Raja Lodhra was the son of Sikh Raja Raam Dyo Minhas and his family claimed to be descendants of Sooraj Hansi Rajput. Lodhra’s family lived in Bahawalpur.
During the period of British rule, Lodhran district increased in population and importance. In 1849, Multan District joined Lodhran making it a tehsil on 5 May 1883. Malik Ghulam Hussain Lodhra ‘zaildar’ suggested the name “Lodhran” for this area. At that time, there were only 19 villages in Lodhran and it was a tehsil of district Multan. This area was situated in Kot Peer Sa-aadat and the tehsil office had been working there for three years. Later, a tehsil office was built within the city Lodhran. Munshi Abdul Wahid was the first superintendent of Lodhran.
In August 1873, Sadar Police Station was founded; in 1885, the Railway Station was founded. On 1 April 1909, the British Government opened a railway line from Lodhran to Karachi.
In 1924, the areas of Kehror Pacca and Dunyapur were separated from tehsil Mailsi and included in tehsil Lodhran. To educate the young generation and to spread the knowledge, there are uncountable institutions, schools and colleges in Lodhran. Many Government, Semi-Government and Non-Government girl’s and boy’s primary and high schools, Inter Commercial Institute, Vocational Institute and colleges are working to educate the people. There are also many hospitals in Lodhran.
It is the 32nd district of Punjab which is situated between the Sutlej and Beas rivers, which form its borders. The Bias River is dry, but the Sutlej River still flows.
Lodhran city was first developed by English rulers in the 18th century in the north side of the Sutlaj River. The foundation of Lodhran was laid in 1830, then in 1849 the British Rule extended to Punjab. District Multan, including the area of Lodhran, also came under the sway of the British Rule. It is a famous railway junction, situated on the main route in the south Punjab. According go Punjab Gazetteer Multan 1901–02, there were five tehsils (Parganas) in Multan District:
- Sarai Sidhu
A settlement operation was started in 1873 and concluded in April 1875. At that time, tehsil Lodhran comprised the following villages: Riddan Wala, Mari Bhago Khan, Omer Pur, Mochi Mohana, Beli, Lahori, Fateh Pur, Khan Pur, Khan Wah Ghalwan, Gogran, Motha, Kot Lal Shah, Karam Ali Wala, Lutaf Pur, Wighamal, Thath Ghalwan and Lodhran.
In 1881, a series of changes were made with the objective of enlarging the Shujabad and decreasing the Mailsi charge. Under these arrangements, 60 villages in the neighbourhood of Kahror Pakka were transferred from the Mailsi to Lodhran tehsil. Further alterations were made in 1897, by which 46 villages were transferred from Lodhran to Shuja Abad, while 104 villages to the East of Kahror Pakka were taken over from Mailsi in compensation.
Kahror Pakka and Dunya Pur were part of tehsil Mailsi and were annexed with Lodhran in 1924. Lodhran was a desolate place but a cultivatable, level tract of land. In 1920, the British Government made a plan to populate the region. Therefore, different land estates were divided to the people of other areas. The Fauji Grant and Tube scheme increased the population of the region as well. Hence, the population of this region swiftly increased
The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Lodhran District.